from album ‘WE ARE THE PLAGUE’
Negative Prophet Records/Cargo Records
VOTED TOP 20 ALBUMS OF 2020
“A dazzling debut album of guitar rock, fused with the primal spirit of blues and gospel… Blending the spirit of Patti Smith and PJ Harvey with the soul of Nick Cave and Mark Lanegan.
The album, which Stapleton self-produced, was recorded with her band which shares members with The Stranglers and Jim Jones Revue. However, ‘Angel Speak’ is a stripped back affair with Stapleton making a switch to acoustic guitar and her delicate vocal taking centre stage.
Stapleton filmed and edited the video herself, collecting footage through the changing seasons over the past year around her home town of Brighton. “A year,” she says, “when great beauty has shone from small things often taken for granted and passed by in the rush of life.” Full press release below.
Stapleton will be playing her first shows in 20 months supporting Humanist in the UK in October. She is also working on a follow up album with funding from Arts Council UK.
Tour Dates October 2021
Sami Yaffa has had a unique career as a musician both in Finland and around the world. First in Finland in the band Pelle Miljoona Oy and then as a founding member of the band Hanoi Rocks, with whom Yaffa lived the life of an international rock musician with all its spices. Fortunately for the man, there have been enough callers since Hanoi to keep him busy: Joan Jett and The Blackhearts and Hanoi Rocks’ big influence, the New York Dolls, to name a few were Yaffa’s bands for years before forming a new band with his old Hanoi Rocks partner Michael Monroe in 2009. This collaboration continues, but now Yaffa is also releasing music under his own name.
The second single from Sami Yaffa’s solo album ‘The Innermost Journey To Your Outermost Mind’ will be released. A song called ‘Down at St. Joe’s’ had been sitting in Yaffa’s desk drawer for a long time as a finished composition, but the lyrics were not coming together. Fortunately, Sami’s bandmate from the Monroe band, Rich Jones, came to the rescue.
“Rich had already written some lyrics for my album when I decided to send this song to him. I definitely wanted this song to be included on the album because it differs from the electronic world of the other songs on the album with its down-home acoustic approach. I wanted to raise a glass with the song to thank The Faces, Stones and Dylan for their brilliance and innovation. Eventually, the theme of the lyrics was found to be the king alcohol, its pros and cons and especially how close to a complete collapse one can get if it gets to take a stranglehold on your life. Richie’s ingenious lyrics brought this song to life, and it became one of my favourite songs on the album,” says Sami Yaffa.
Sami Yaffa: The Innermost Journey To Your Outermost Mind album will be released on September 3, 2021, in Finland by Vallila Music House and internationally by Cargo Records
The new Tyla’s Dogs D’Amour studio album ‘Tree Bridge Cross’will be released on July 30th!… It’s the follow-up to 2019’s ‘In Vino Veritas’ and is available as a Gatefold 12” on Blue Vinyl, Limited-edition double CD & Single CD.
Welcome to 2021. The 21st year of the 21st Century, the International Year of Peace & Trust, the Chinese year of the Metal Ox and the year Tyla’s Dogs D’Amour release new studio album ‘Tree Bridge Cross’
Following the UK chart success & critical acclaim of their last full-length studio album ‘In Vino Veritas’ this new album is another incendiary, 111% proof, guitar-fuelled, alcohol-soaked adrenalin shot.
Tyla’s trademark songs of hope & heartache, demons & debauchery and conflict & chaos are taken to new heights by a band in full flow. Big choruses are delivered with power. Tender-hearted lyrics with emotion.
Official release date is July 30 but you can pre-order now and follow the band’s imperfect journey from creation to completion. Anyone pre-ordering the album will be sent regular missives from Tyla Towers. Updates on artwork, songs in progress, recording out-takes, general musings, napkin drawings and unfunny jokes will all stream your way over the coming months.
WARRIOR SOUL is releasing a blast of a covers album called ‘Cocaine and Other Good Stuff‘ on Livewire/Cargo Records on November 13th 2020. The album is preceded by the timely release of the single ‘Elected’ on October 9th 2020.
The album is an incendiary compilation of songs that everyone in the band, both current and previous members, had some input choosing, and it shows true honesty in the recordings, making it a fresh take on some very listenable rock jams.
Kory Clarke – “We wanted to make a record that was not about all the crap we are all living in, as it seems like a well worn path for . So, I had to think out of the box“.
The album was recorded all over the western world (Edinburgh – Scotland, Newcastle – England, Copenhagen – Denmark, L.A. – USA, NYC- USA, Chicago – USA, Detroit – USA, Sheffield – UK, Costa Blanca – Torrevieja – Spain) in home studios.
1. Good Times Roll (Ocasek)
2. Cocaine (Cale)
3. Crosstown Traffic (Hendrix)
4. Cold Gin (Frehley)
5. D.O.A. (Van Halen, Van Halen, Anthony, Roth)
6. Elected (Cooper, Buxton, Bruce, Dunaway, Smith)
7. Outlaw (Kilmister, Campbell, Dee)
8. Firehouse (Stanley)
9. Get Down Tonight (Casey, Finch)
10. We’re An American Band (Brewer)
11. Living After Midnight (Halford, Downing, Tipton)
The idea for a covers album started when mainman Kory Clarke was contacted by legendary rock photographer, Alex Ruffini‘s brother, enquiring if Warrior Soul would record a cover of a KISS song, which was Alex Ruffini‘s favourite band, for a tribute in aid of Cancer Research. Warrior Soul recorded ‘Cold Gin‘. Once the band started recording, it sounded really positive and they decided to assemble a complete record of covers ranging from Motörhead to KC and the Sunshine Band.
Kory Clarke – “I contacted many of the musicians who have played with Warrior Soul recently and asked if they wanted to be part of it – everyone was very much up for it and ready to go. We called John Dryland at Livewire/Cargo Records, and he said ‘of course, go for it‘, the irony of recording ‘Good Times Roll’ during a global pandemic really works as you can hear the sneer of sarcasm right through every chorus!”
Warrior Soul are known for recording some electrifying covers previously including songs by Joy Division, Iggy Pop and David Bowie. Kory Clarke has performed on several compilation and tribute albums singing other acts songs but this is the first complete album of its kind from Warrior Soul.
Warrior Soul have taken their straight-ahead, honest, full-on rock n’ roll approach to these songs and encourage you to raise a glass and sterilize your tooter – cause there ain’t no vaccine for this jamdemic.
From debut album ‘WE ARE THE PLAGUE’ released July 31st
on Negative Prophet Records / Cargo Records
As Autumn creeps through the door, Suzie Stapleton has unveiled a timely new film clip for the appropriately titled track ‘September’. ‘September’ is the fourth single from the Brighton-based artist’s self-produced debut album ‘We
Are The Plague’ which was released on July 31st via Negative Prophet Records. The album, which weaves it’s way through alternative rock to gothic-blues and dark-folk, has been stacking up praise with Stapleton being compared to Patti Smith, Nick Cave, Emma Ruth Rundle, and Mark Lanegan. ‘We Are The Plague’ was voted into Louder Than War’s Top 22 Albums of 2020 So Far in July and tracks from the album have been played on BBC6, Radio Eins,
Double J and more.
Whilst ‘We Are The Plague’ is the defiant call of a generation sold down the river, ‘September‘ takes a more introspective turn. Stapleton’s band – bassist Gavin Jay (who also filmed and edited the video) of Jim Jones & The Righteous Mind and drummer Jim Macaulay of The Stranglers – rumble beneath Stapleton’s driving guitar lines which are reminiscent of an unhinged Thurston Moore. Lyrically Stapleton doesn’t disappoint with a feverish shamanistic outpouring as the song crescendos and her dry-wit shining through with lines such as ‘Muses don’t
It seems Stapleton is keeping up the pace on other fronts, recently making a cameo on backing vocals on Crippled Black Phoenix’s single ‘Cry of Love’ from their forthcoming album ‘Ellengæst’ . Stapleton also contributes guitar to a Bauhaus rendition on the album which is set for release on October 9th via Season of Mist. Stapleton met Crippled Black Phoenix via their 2014 collaboration on The Jeffrey Lee Pierce Sessions Project which Stapleton
contributed to whilst still based in Australia.
Stapleton’s next live dates are in February supporting Humanist in London, Manchester, and Brighton.
Suzie Stapleton is touring the UK Feb 2021 supporting Humanist
6th Yes (The Pink Room) MANCHESTER (solo)
8th The Prince Albert, BRIGHTON (full band)
9th The Lexington, LONDON (solo)
BUY TICKETS HERE
Not everything is Black & White but in these strange times, it helps polarize your brain and when these Londoner’s plugin and turn it up with their sharp angular chords thrashed out with much anger and frustration along with some pissed off rhythms that embrace modern technology these post-punks seem to love hiding in the bleak grey corners of your mind and jump out with loud overdriven, often intense songs that lack any colour and do so with the intension of making everything seem just a little out of focus.
I get the impression Girls In Synthesis aren’t for compromising and their views are clear as daylight. The politically charged and perfectly delivered ‘They’re Not Listening’ fits with the angst and rage of the times when politicians only work inside their own echo chamber and fuck the rest of us, never apologising for mistakes nor recognising when they might be wrong. The delivery is at times in keeping with the likes of Sleaford Mods but the music is born from real instruments and not an apple mac book being Londoners I guess the concrete jungle has played a part in creating the music they play. The sounds they create are aggressive, jarring and every void is filled to the brim.
They waste no time as they soundtrack the worst of times like a nuclear bomb going off ‘Arterial Movements’ could be what it sounds like in your head. from the frantic feedback being wrestled like a giant anaconda. the chorus has gang vocals from a concrete bunker in response to the dry vocal its chaos but never is it too fucked up and it certainly gets the blood pumping.
It’s a pretty unrelenting album as well as uncompromising and it’s not until halfway when the pace eases up but not the tension as ‘Human Frailty’ is a moment for you to catch your breath. the solo is mental and the bleakness of the music is intense.
If you might think that side two is going to get any easier then forget it ‘Cause For Concern’ is pounding whilst that industrial concrete bass throb is on the attack on ‘Coming Up For Air’ which is a short sharp foray into carpet-bombing using the medium of audio. Perhaps a bit out of step with the shorter songs you then get ‘Set Up To Fail’ with its five-plus minutes beginning with a cleaner sound reminding me of PIL meets crass as it gains momentum but never does take off preferring to ease back and hammer on with a more jazz vibe with the brass flittering around the speakers.
To close this one down there’s the buzz of ‘Tirades Of Hate And Fear’ with its flat delivery of the lyrics from a low chat in your ear it gets more and more intense before signing off. Better to burn out than fade away for sure Girls in Synthesis deliver an album that will keep on giving and is totally in keeping with these strange times. Post Punk, noisy, aggressive and digging you on the temple to shut up and just listen. Check it out.
UK punk rock band, VICE SQUAD featuring legendary Punk Vocalist and writer BEKI BONDAGE, have announced the release of their new album “Battle of Britain“, out on October 16h, 2020 via LAST ROCKER RECORDS/CARGO RECORDS. The album will be available digital, on CD and limited 250 copies on white vinyl / 250 copies on black vinyl can be pre-ordered: Here
The first rule of Punk is there are no rules and VICE SQUAD ably illustrate this with ‘Battle of Britain’. Written, Recorded and Mixed by Beki Bond and Paul Rooney in their home studio. The 13 track album opens with the blistering ‘Ruination’ which cuts through the bullshit of small time promoters and blaggers with consummate swagger and melody while ‘I Dare To Breathe’ is an amphetamine driven anthem to paranoia. ‘When You Were 17’ is almost-tender and tells of first tattoos and under age booze whilst the more chilling ‘Ignored To Death’ rails against isolation and homelessness.
The explosive ‘Born In A War’ rages along like a missile ravaging a third world country and warns ‘See how they treat refugees? That’s how they’ll treat you and me’. Elgar’s ‘Nimrod’ reworked with a pulsating industrial bass segues into title track, ‘Battle Of Britain‘ where Beki‘s vocals soar like a Spitfire over the crunching de-tuned riff and spit fury over the hypocrisy of putting war memorials before people.
The dystopian ‘Poverty Face’ hits you with the opening line ‘Disinheriting the meek, slyly killing off the weak’ and is counter balanced by the more upbeat ‘How The Other Half Lives’. ‘No Evil’ is a relentless attack on the normalisation of the suffering and death of billions of animals for the meat industry. Battle of Britain’s hard hitting collection of anger and riffage pulls no punches in covering topics from austerity and factory farming to the pernicious influence of the Mainstream Media – ‘Led by lies lambs to the slaughter, tax exiles say who you vote for’. Brexit, fake patriotism and cognitive dissonance all get a good kicking too.
The penultimate track, ‘You Can’t Fool All Of The People‘ mixes baritone guitar with violin and Celtic rhythms climaxing in an epic James Bondesque heavy guitar/orchestral blend and breaks every rule in the Punk Police hand book whilst pleading for unity against a rigged political system. ‘Pulling Teeth’ with its ominous riff and hilariously frustrated lyrics ‘Dithering jibbering solid as jam, is it fair I’m both the woman and the man’ closes the album in manic style.
VICE SQUAD are a UK Punk Rock band who’s first single releases included the classic ‘Last Rockers’ 7” in 1981. This was followed by the landmark albums ‘No Cause For Concern’ in the same year and ‘Stand Strong Stand Proud’ in 1982 which were both released on EMI.
Since then VICE SQUAD have delivered short sharp songs with incisive political lyrics and a dash of humour spat out over a thunderous rhythm and machine gun Rock ’n’ Roll guitars. Their latest releases are the EPs ‘Born In A War’ and ‘Ignored To Death V2’ taken from the forthcoming album ‘Battle of Britain’ set for release on their own Last Rockers label in May 2020.
The band have become 100% DIY since forming Last Rockers Records in 2009. In keeping with the DIY ethic the previous albums were recorded in the band’s own ‘Sci Fidelity’ studio South London and the new album ‘Battle of Britain’ continues this with the band maintaining full artistic control with the benefit of global distribution via Cargo. Their last album ‘ Cardboard Country’ was launched on the back of a very successful Pledge campaign raising funds for the Shelter homeless charity in line with the album title which was inspired by ‘Cardboard City’, the name given to the settlement of homeless people living in cardboard boxes near London’s Waterloo station. Vice Squad is fronted by raucous voiced singer/guitarist Beki Bondage who was famed for being a teenage champion of Animal rights long before the current popularity of veganism.
VICE SQUAD’s song ’Humane’ was one of the first ever Animal Rights songs. Beki has been featured on the front cover of a number of influential music tabloids such at Melody Maker, NME, Sounds, Record Mirror and Smash Hits. After a hiatus, Beki formed a new version of Vice Squad in 1997 featuring longstanding members of her post VS outfit The Bombshells and they have released several quality albums of powerful punk songs that have been very well received across the world. VICE SQUAD are considered one of the most influential punk rock bands of all time, paving the way for other female Punk and Rock singers and influencing male performers such as Dave Grohl of Nirvana and Foo Fighters fame who was introduced to VICE SQUAD via his sister’s record collection.
Picture the scene; You’re the guitar player in a cool punk n roll band with a member of The Wildhearts, you release a well-received mini-album, a couple of singles, do a bunch of great support gigs with cool bands, even some great headline shows of your own. Things are looking up. Then The Wildhearts reform, your singer/bass player goes back to said band (quite rightly) to take on the world and record one of the greatest rock albums of the last decade, leaving your little band in hiatus. The drummer and guitar player form a cool as fuck pop-punk band called The Spangles and you’re left twiddling your bleedin’ thumbs until they’ve got it all out of their system.
Well, we may not have The Main Grains anymore, but that loveable rogue JJ Watt is back from the ashes with a new band and he’s only gone and roped in the likes of Kory Clarke and Tracii Guns to guest on his new project The City Kids (no, not the long gone, Cardiff based glam legends, how many times do I have to tell ya?!)
Joining JJ are guitarist Dennis Post (Warrior Soul/Flush The Fashion), Berty Burton (Tigertailz) and Dave Sanders (Falling Red). The City Kids follow the recent single release ‘Best Of You’ with their debut album ‘Things That Never Were’. Self-produced and mastered by the legend that is Dave Draper, ‘Things That Never Were’ is a collection of songs and ideas penned by the guitar player when he was still in The Main Grains. In fact, the overly catchy ‘You Get Nothing’ was a live favourite in their set.
You could say The City Kids sound is no real departure from JJ’s previous band. If anything the sound is rawer, the vocals dirtier, but the melody is still prevalent throughout. This is gritty rock ‘n’ roll with a sound that sits somewhere between Social Distortion and The Yo-Yos.
‘Best Of You’ opens the album in style with a Ramones style “one-two-free-four” count in and a blistering guitar lick. Dirty biker rock is the order of the day, JJ’s vocals as gritty as the guitars are dirty. Fat, ringing power chords fill the verse as it powers to an anthemic and upbeat chorus. A sonic guitar solo that would make Dregen proud and a Wildhearts styled mid-song breakdown gives you a hint where these guys are coming from and where the rest of the album will be taking us.
It’s no surprise the aforementioned ‘You Get Nothing’ was a Main Grains live staple. That chorus refrain is a banger, and hearing a recorded version finally does it justice. At 2 minutes 30 seconds, it’s over in a flash leaving the listener crying out for more.
And much more they give us. Mid-paced rockers such as ‘Before You Fall’ and ‘All I Want’ are all well and good, the latter taken to another level with some blistering fretwork courtesy of LA Guns guitar slinger Tracii Guns. Elsewhere, ‘No More Heroes’ is a catchy, radio-friendly slice of power pop with a punky edge, think The Replacements meets Social Distortion for reference here.
There are a couple of true standout tracks. ‘Rats’ is a killer, trashy ride featuring Billy Tee and Alex Holmes from The Suicide Notes. Their delivery adds a certain sleaziness that gives an edgy, Faster Pussycat meets Backyard Babies feel. The guitars are slung around the knees, the gang vocals spat with venom. This one is a whole lotta fun, as is album closer ‘Round And (A) Round’. A song that was co-written with Warrior Soul legend Kory Clarke and features the man himself sharing lead vocals with JJ, along with those The Suicide Notes dudes, yet again adding gang vocal goodness for the chorus. This is a killer, no-frills anthem. Upbeat, punk and belligerent just as you would expect. Kory’s unmistakable raspy vocals are on fine form and it pretty much sums up the whole feel of the album.
If you like your music, loud, proud and raw as fuck, if you like your rock with some dirt under the fingernails and extra power under the hood, then you could do no better than check out this new long-player from The City Kids.
The limited-edition 2 CD version of ‘Things That Never Were’ sold out in just 5 hours, but you can pre-order the extremely unlimited standard CD from the link below right now.
LA rock ‘n’ rollers Bullets And Octane follow up 2018’s ‘Waking Up Dead’ comeback album with a new 10 track affair entitled ‘Riot Riot Rock n Roll’. Long time frontman Gene Louis has behind him a stable and formidable line-up that has been destroying the pits and dives of the world for a couple of years now. With Felipe Rodrigo (guitar), Zachary Kibbee (bass) and Jonny Udell pounding the skins, it feels like the second coming for this band.
In the past Bullets And Octane have toured with Avenged Sevenfold and hit the festival circuits with the best of them. They have had albums produced by the likes of Gilby Clarke and Page Hamilton. But the music industry is a different beast to what it was 20 years ago and the crowds are also dwindling for everyone. It may seem like the glory days of live rock music are behind us, but Gene Louis has had to adapt to the times and Bullets And Octane have always been a band who thrive on being the underdog, and oh how we love an underdog here at RPM.
The roaring, meaty engine introduction leads into a title track full of trademark angst and rebellion with a catchy, anthemic chorus to shout from the rooftops. With a wall of distortion and a heavy, rhythmic beat, it carries a statement of intent that rings true through the entire album. Gang vocals have been a Bullets and Octane trademark for pretty much 20 years now, and ‘Riot Riot Rock n Roll’ shows no signs of the band changing that.
Gene spits and growls the vocals with the sleazy delivery of Lemmy meets Zodiac Mindwarp. Filipe peels off killer riffs and Slash inspired solos like his life depends on it, while the rhythm section pounds like a well-oiled beast keeping it all together.
The first single ‘Ain’t Gonna Be Your Dog’ was co-written by ex Buckcherry guitar player Keith Nelson and would not sound out of place on a Buckcherry record to be fair. A mid-paced radio-friendly rocker, the subdued vocals invite you in and then rage for the chorus. It comes on with guitars slung low and a middle finger raised in salute.
Bullets and Octane have always dealt in heavy, gritty rock ‘n’ roll and this album does not stray from that path. It’s the kinda music that has dirt under the fingernails and grease in the hair. Songs for the outcasts that reek of engine oil and have last night’s whiskey on the breath, but still retain melody and an anthemic quality.
With dark and foreboding melodies that skulk like Marilyn Manson is his prime and then morph into high octane choruses, the likes of ‘Addicted To Outrage’ and ‘Heaven Can Wait’ will always have me salivating. A shout out to Filipe’s inspired and inventive guitar riffs that just gives the likes of ‘The Devil’ an extra cool factor and makes ‘Give Me A Reason’ sound like a punk rock ‘Panama’ to these ears.
Then there’s the signature stand out anthems for troubled times and disenchanted minds. ‘Chaos’ is a timely anthem and one of the strongest tracks on offer. Riding on an overly familiar, yet killer guitar refrain, the verse pumps from the speakers. “What’s that? Let’s turn it up!” suggests the frontman, before the band blasts into yet another memorable chorus. Then closer ‘Lost Crazy Psycho’ has our illustrious singer almost rapping a diatribe before exploding into a glorious and volatile refrain that stays with you long after the (virtual) disc has stopped spinning.
Its 2020 and everything we know and take for granted in this world is fucked right now. If you are reading this, then music is your escape, and maybe a new Bullets And Octane album is just what you need. ‘Riot Riot Rock n Roll’ is 10 tracks of angst-ridden rock, choc-a-bloc with attitude and themes of escapism, rebellion and generally not giving two flying fucks!
It’s fair to say Gene Louis has not mellowed with age and Bullets And Octane are here to inject rock ‘n’ roll venom straight into the jugular.
US hard rock band, BULLETS AND OCTANE, have announced the release of their new full length album “Riot Riot Rock N Roll” worldwide physical and digitally on April 24th via Bad MoFo Records/Cargo Records UK. The new single and music video for the first single ‘Ain’t Gonna Be Your Dog‘, co-written with ex Buckcherry guitarist Keith Nelson will be available on March 20th, 2020.
Riot Riot Rock N Roll is the follow up release to 2018’s “Waking Up Dead” from LA rockers Bullets and Octane and can be pre-ordered here
Riot Riot Rock N Roll is a energetic take no prisoners rock and roll album with 10 new tracks.
Bullets and Octane did extensive touring for “Waking Up Dead” that included 5 European Tours and a US tour. Opening slots for CKY and festival appearances at Malmo Festival in Sweden and Call Of The Wild in the UK helped build an already rabid fan base.
During the time on the road the band wrote the new album “Riot Riot Rock N Roll” in which guitarist Felipe Rodrigo says “This is the heaviest and best Bullets album to date”.
BULLETS AND OCTANE is:
Gene Louis – vocals
Felipe Rodrigo – guitar, backing vocals
Zachary Kibbee – bass, backing vocals
Jonny Udell – drums
Bullets and Octane exploded onto the scene in 2003 with their debut EP “One Night Stand Rock N Roll Band” on Critereon Records. 2004 saw the 2nd EP “Bullets And Octane” and their debut album “The Revelry” produced by Gilby Clarke of Guns And Roses also on Critereon Records. In 2005-2006 they Supported Avenged Sevenfold in America and Europe on the City Of Evil Tour.
2006 was a big year for the band as they were signed to RCA/BMG Records. They released their first major label album “In The Mouth Of The Young“, which was produced by Page Hamilton of Helmet. They played The Download Festival and where on “The Family Values Tour” with Korn, Stone Sour, Flyleaf and Deftones. They headlined their own UK tour as well.
2007 saw them Leave RCA for Ares Records, released “Songs For The Underdog” album and tour with Unwritten Law. They had headlining UK Tour with The Knives that year as well. In 2009 they released “Bullets and Octane ” a full length album and Toured the U.K. with Gunfire 76 (Wednesday 13’s project).
In 2016 they played Lost Highway motorcycle show and concert with Social Distortion, Foghat and Eagles Of Death Metal as well as releasing a new song “Burning At Both Wicks“.
In 2017 back at it full time with a solid line up, released songs and videos for “Bad Mother Fucker” and “Waking Up Dead“, headlined a very successful tour of the U.K and Sweden. They finished the “Waking Up Dead” album and played a string of successful shows in Hollywood, Orange County and Las Vegas.
In 2018 they are looking to release the album “Waking Up Dead“. They are already slated to headline U.K. dates and Sweden dates in February to kick off the 20 Year anniversary of the band with what has been touted as the most solid line up in it’s history.